This pdf from Abolish Human Abortion is fantastic. I want to quote part of it in answering the question in the title.
First, we have to know who the government in Jesus’ day was. The obvious (but only partial) answer is the Romans. They were occupying Israel. But, they weren’t the only government. The Pharisees were also governing.
Jesus declared the scribes and Pharisees “sit in Moses’ seat”–the place of civil authority (Matthew 23:2).
Rulers brought the woman caught in adultery to Jesus (John 8).
The Sanhedrin tried Jesus before turning him over to Pilate (Matthew 26).
The high priest put the apostles in common prison, beat them, and commanded them regarding their speech (Acts 5).
Saul was a bounty hunter commissioned by the Sanhedrin to deliver “law breakers” for trial and punishment–even death (Acts 26).
So to find examples of Jesus resisting authority and disobeying the government, you can pretty much just flip open to a random page in the gospels and find at least one example. He disobeyed them often and boldly.
Christians need to resist unjust laws, and the only standard for what is just and unjust is God’s law.